Endocrine Reviews Journal Article

Consensus Statement on Vitamin D Status Assessment and Supplementation

May 14, 2024

Whys, Whens, and Hows

 

Andrea Giustina, John P Bilezikian, Robert A Adler, Giuseppe Banfi, Daniel D Bikle, Neil C Binkley, Jens Bollerslev, Roger Bouillon, Maria Luisa Brandi, Felipe F Casanueva, Luigi di Filippo, Lorenzo M Donini, Peter R Ebeling, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan, Angelo Fassio, Stefano Frara, Glenville Jones, Claudio Marcocci, Adrian R Martineau, Salvatore Minisola, Nicola Napoli, Massimo Procopio, René Rizzoli, Anne L Schafer, Christopher T Sempos, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Jyrki K Virtanen
Endocrine Reviews, First published online April 27, 2024, bnae009
https://doi.org/10.1210/endrev/bnae009

Abstract

The 6th International Conference, “Controversies in Vitamin D,” was convened to discuss controversial topics, such as vitamin D metabolism, assessment, actions, and supplementation. Novel insights into vitamin D mechanisms of action suggest links with conditions that do not depend only on reduced solar exposure or diet intake and that can be detected with distinctive noncanonical vitamin D metabolites. Optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels remain debated. Varying recommendations from different societies arise from evaluating different clinical or public health approaches. The lack of assay standardization also poses challenges in interpreting data from available studies, hindering rational data pooling and meta-analyses. Beyond the well-known skeletal features, interest in vitamin D's extraskeletal effects has led to clinical trials on cancer, cardiovascular risk, respiratory effects, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and mortality. The initial negative results are likely due to enrollment of vitamin D-replete individuals. Subsequent post hoc analyses have suggested, nevertheless, potential benefits in reducing cancer incidence, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular events, and diabetes. Oral administration of vitamin D is the preferred route. Parenteral administration is reserved for specific clinical situations. Cholecalciferol is favored due to safety and minimal monitoring requirements. Calcifediol may be used in certain conditions, while calcitriol should be limited to specific disorders in which the active metabolite is not readily produced in vivo. Further studies are needed to investigate vitamin D effects in relation to the different recommended 25(OH)D levels and the efficacy of the different supplementary formulations in achieving biochemical and clinical outcomes within the multifaced skeletal and extraskeletal potential effects of vitamin D.

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